This is very possible, and even likely. It is only an assumption that integral or adjacent lead could only be an end-product. In addition, there is “common lead, “which has no radioactive parent lead This could easily be mixed into the sample and would seriously affect the dating of that sample. Faul, an authority in the field, recognized it also: When the earth’s crust was formed, the primordial lead was frozen into rocks that also contained uranium and thorium in various ratios to lead. When a uranium sample is tested for dating purposes, it is assumed that the entire quantity of lead in it is “daughter-product lead” that is, the end-product of the decayed uranium. The specimen is not carefully and thoroughly checked for possible “common lead” content, because it is such a time-consuming task. Yet it is that very uranium-lead ratio which is used to date the sample!
Hollow Earth conspiracy theories: the hole truth
First Published 30 Jan Can we rely on radiometric dating techniques? How accurate are they? First, I’ll start by referring you to an extensive article on the young earth creation science website Answers in Genesis , titled “What About Carbon Dating? No, they are not. Yes, I agreed with the young earther on this one. But that doesn’t mean the earth is young.
How Science Figured Out the Age of Earth For centuries scholars sought to determine Earth’s age, but the answer had to wait for careful geologic observation, isotopic analyses of the elements.
Why almost all scientists believe in evolution: It is impossible to prove that the theory of evolution is absolutely true. The theory maintains that plant evolution, animal evolution and the major geological changes to the earth unfolded over billions of years. Thus, the full theory cannot be demonstrated in the laboratory. Processes like the rise of mountains and erosion are simply too slow to be observed during one person’s lifetime.
Elements of the theory e. But nobody was on hand to observe what the world and its life forms looked like hundreds of millions of years ago.
Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon-14 Dating
The land of the Wandjina is a vast area of about , square kilometres of lands, waters, sea and islands in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia with continuous culture dating back at least 60, years but probably much older. Here, traditional Aboriginal law and culture are still active and alive. The Worora, Ngarinyin and Wunumbul people are the three Wandjina tribes — these tribal groups are the custodians of the oldest known figurative art which is scattered throughout the Kimberley.
Perhaps what is most interesting about their figurative art painted on rocks and in caves is the way in which they have represented the Wandjinas – white faces, devoid of a mouth, large black eyes, and a head surrounded by a halo or some type of helmet.
The two main theories about the history of Earth are catastrophism and uniformitarianism. Both theories acknowledge that the Earth’s landscape was formed and shaped by natural events over geologic.
View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers, Oreopithecus ‘s hand closely matches the pattern of early hominids, with a grasping capability including firm pad-to-pad precision gripping that apes are unable to perform presumably as a response to similar functional demands to hominids Moya-Sola et al, Bipedal activities made up a significant part of the positional behavior of this primate Kohler and Moya-Sola, Gorilla and human DNA only differs by 2.
Our DNA differs by only 1. The two species of Pan, the chimpanzee, P. The human ancestral line must have arisen between 5 and 8 million years ago. However, with the many species to be found, the exact sequence of species leading to humanity, has not yet been established. Morphological differences, such as in the pelvis, supports making Neanderthals a separate species, Homo neanderthalensis.
Age of the Earth
Relative dating Studies of strata , the layering of rocks and earth, gave naturalists an appreciation that Earth may have been through many changes during its existence. These layers often contained fossilized remains of unknown creatures, leading some to interpret a progression of organisms from layer to layer. Lomonosov’s ideas were mostly speculative. In the Comte du Buffon tried to obtain a value for the age of Earth using an experiment:
But there are serious dissenting scientific voices on evolutionary theory, and conventional earth dating techniques, and a growing Creation Science community make a good case for a Young Earth. Various dating clocks, such as the earth’s decaying magnetic field and population growth suggest a young earth, and the classical radiometric dating assumption of Uniformitarianism has to be questioned given .
Therefore it should come as no surprise that creationists at the Institute for Creation Research ICR have been trying desperately to discredit this method for years. They have their work cut out for them, however, because radiocarbon C dating is one of the most reliable of all the radiometric dating methods. This article will answer several of the most common creationist attacks on carbon dating, using the question-answer format that has proved so useful to lecturers and debaters.
How does carbon dating work? Cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere are constantly converting the isotope nitrogen N into carbon C or radiocarbon. Living organisms are constantly incorporating this C into their bodies along with other carbon isotopes. When the organisms die, they stop incorporating new C , and the old C starts to decay back into N by emitting beta particles.
The older an organism’s remains are, the less beta radiation it emits because its C is steadily dwindling at a predictable rate. So, if we measure the rate of beta decay in an organic sample, we can calculate how old the sample is. C decays with a half-life of 5, years. Kieth and Anderson radiocarbon-dated the shell of a living freshwater mussel and obtained an age of over two thousand years.
How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
Leibnitz reworked Descartes’s cosmogony. Protogea was published much later in An essay toward a Natural History of the Earth. Woodward came down fairly strongly for the view that the flood was an act of God that could not be accounted for by normal physical processes. He also postulated hydrological sorting to account for the ordering of fossils.
This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed. This dating is based on evidence from radiometric age-dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the radiometric ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar samples.
But where evidence has survived — from entombed Egyptian mummies, to the burial mounds of horsemen of the Siberian Plain, to Paleolithic tattoo implements found in prehistoric caves in Spain — it would appear that tattoos were indeed a feature of prehistoric cultures. We know from studying indigenous peoples in the modern era that tattoos have not been merely decorative, rather, they were charms for protection, amulets for good luck, marks of shame or glory, symbols of faith, proof of maturity or readiness for marriage or battle.
They served the sensual, erotic, and emotional aspects of the psyche, providing a source of power, and perhaps more importantly, a reminder of the tattooed citizen’s social duty. Animals were the dominant tattoo motifs in ancient times, and represented personal or clan totems, sometimes imbuing the believer with its spirit.
If it was a case of ‘mind over matter’, it’s a psychic feat that today’s tattoo aficionado still engages in. From the jungles of Borneo to the tattoo studios of L. Mysterious and powerful, this relationship of inner to outer – the skin being the dividing membrane — is nothing less than the psychic origin of tattoo.
An examination of the most ancient tattoo cultures should shed light on this ‘imaginal’ world from where all tattoo motifs originate. Due to the lack of preserved skin from ancient times – mummified bodies being exceedingly rare – the journey in search of the earliest tattoos finds us on our knees examining fragments of clay figurines that display tattoo-like etchings.
Detectives may even pick up the trail in a stanza of ancient poetry, or resort to examining myth. From Ancient Greece comes the famous story of Helen of Troy, in which the legendary beauty is abducted by the Trojan, Paris. For his protection, Paris was tattooed as a charm against the arrows of Helen’s jealous husband. Alas, the resulting Trojan Wars saw Paris killed in the end.
The Mysterious Aboriginal Rock Art of the Wandjinas
How long has this planet been here? Ask most Christians this question and you will likely receive a quick, self-assured answer. All would be well if you could count on receiving the same answer! However, some will very quickly tell you that the earth was created during creation week and can be no more than six to ten thousand years old. Other Christians will tell you, with just as much confidence, that the earth is 4.
Radiometric dating is often used to “prove” rocks are millions of years old. Once you understand the basic science, however, you can see how wrong assumptions lead to incorrect dates. This three-part series will help you properly understand radiometric dating, the assumptions that lead to.
The exact scientific process that led to the creation of prokaryotic life still eludes scientists today. Whether these early organisms metabolized energy through the process of photosynthesis utilizing light or by another method, such as chemosynthesis utilizing chemicals , is also unknown. The origin of life on planet Earth has long baffled the scientific community. Although many theories have been proposed, there is no consensus as to how life first originated on the Earth.
Science believes that the Earth’s early atmosphere consisted of gases such as methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and steam. These gases may have combined with electrical discharge from lightning other energy sources are also possible to produce organic compounds. Organic compounds, which include A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins.
Often referred to as the “building blocks” of proteins. Scientists acknowledge that even simple single-celled organisms are far more complex than the organic compounds that could have been formed from the pre-biotic conditions of ancient Earth. Yet, the origin of life is believed to have begun from some similar natural process and progressed through many steps over the span of millions of years, until the first singled-celled life was created.
Changing Views of the History of the Earth
The clip is bound to fan the flames of conspiracy on some of the more incredulous online forums. So persistent is the chemtrail theory that it has been discussed on radio talk shows, raised by politicians, while US government agencies report calls from irate citizens demanding an explanation. The trails which arouse the most suspicion are those that remain visible for a long time, dispersing into cirrus-like cloud formations, or those from multiple aircraft which form a persistent noughts-and-crosses-style grid over a large area.
Proponents of the conspiracy theory offer a variety of explanations. It is an attempt to control global warming, according to some, while others cite far more sinister goals, such as human population control, psychological manipulation, and military weapons testing.
Nonetheless, stratigraphy and radiometric dating of Precambrian rocks have clearly demonstrated that the history of the Earth extends billions of years into the past. Radiometric dating has not been applied to just a few selected rocks from the geologic record.
Roman poet Lucretius, intellectual heir to the Greek atomists, believed its formation must have been relatively recent, given that there were no records going back beyond the Trojan War. The Talmudic rabbis, Martin Luther and others used the biblical account to extrapolate back from known history and came up with rather similar estimates for when the earth came into being. Within decades observation began overtaking such thinking. In the s Nicolas Steno formulated our modern concepts of deposition of horizontal strata.
He inferred that where the layers are not horizontal, they must have been tilted since their deposition and noted that different strata contain different kinds of fossil. This position came to be known as uniformitarianism, but within it we must distinguish between uniformity of natural law which nearly all of us would accept and the increasingly questionable assumptions of uniformity of process, uniformity of rate and uniformity of outcome. That is the background to the intellectual drama being played out in this series of papers.
It is a drama consisting of a prologue and three acts, complex characters, and no clear heroes or villains. We, of course, know the final outcome, but we should not let that influence our appreciation of the story as it unfolds. Even less should we let that knowledge influence our judgment of the players, acting as they did in their own time, constrained by the concepts and data then available. One outstanding feature of this drama is the role played by those who themselves were not, or not exclusively, geologists.
Most notable is William Thomson, ennobled to become Lord Kelvin in , whose theories make up an entire section of this collection. He was one of the dominant physicists of his time, the Age of Steam.
Evidence for a Young Earth
The Disappearance of a Viking Greenland Colony. Our Earth is Hollow. The Greenland colony thrived for several centuries, but then as Europe became embroiled in war and the disease of the plague, the Norwegians lost contact with their Arctic colonies in Iceland and Greenland. The last ship known to have returned from their Arctic colonies to Norway was in When the Dark Ages had past and Greenland was once again rediscovered with Hans Egede establishing the first modern settlement there in , all that could be found of the original Viking settlers was their ruins and some of their animals.
Share This Page. Print-Friendly PDF. Related Articles. Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. Old Earth Creation Science Articles. To learn more about old earth creationism, see Old Earth Belief, or check out the article Can You Be A Christian and Believe in an Old Earth.
PDF This 35 page ebook full of photographs and diagrams is the perfect tool to help spark conversation and awaken your friends and family to the mother of all conspiracies. Please make copies, print, distribute, re-upload and do everything you can to get this most important information out to the masses! Download from the link above or read the entire thing online below: If Earth were a giant sphere tilted, wobbling and hurdling through infinite space then truly flat, consistently level surfaces would not exist here.
But since Earth is in fact an extended flat plane, this fundamental physical property of fluids finding and remaining level is consistent with experience and common sense. If Earth were truly a spinning ball then many of these rivers would be impossibly flowing uphill, for example the Mississippi in its miles would have to ascend 11 miles before reaching the Gulf of Mexico. Parts of the West African Congo, according to the supposed inclination and movement of the ball-Earth, would be sometimes running uphill and sometimes down.
This would also be the case for the Parana, Paraguay and other long rivers. This means along a 6 mile channel of standing water, the Earth would dip 6 feet on either end from the central peak. Every time such experiments have been conducted, however, standing water has proven to be perfectly level. Canals, railways, bridges and tunnels for example are always cut and laid horizontally, often over hundreds of miles without any allowance for curvature.
No engineer would dream of allowing anything of the kind. I have projected many miles of railways and many more of canals and the allowance has not even been thought of, much less allowed for.
Infinity War: 16 Fan Theories About Thanos (That Might Actually Be True)
This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point: Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint.
A full discussion of the topic must therefore include the current scientific challenge to the OE concept. This challenge is mainly headed by Creationism which teaches a young-earth YE theory.
Radiocarbon dating can easily establish that humans have been on the earth for over twenty thousand years, at least twice as long as creationists are willing to allow.
The supervillain is finally taking matters in to his own hands as he tries to obtain all six Infinity Stones. These rare artifacts are linked to six fundamental forces that control the universe. When Thanos steps out of the shadows, as he promised in the end credits scene of Avengers: Age of Ultron, he does so with only one goal in mind — collecting the six stones from those currently holding them.
The Infinity War trailer appears to show the Mad Titan on the brink of achieving his goal, with only the Avengers and the forces of Wakanda standing in his way. However, in the MCU, the Gauntlet appears to have special powers of its own, and it was not made by Thanos himself.